RAND > ISE > Projects & Resources > Our Future, Our Environment > Welcome Page

The Rosetta Stone: Slide Show

How the Instruction Set Is Read

The purpose of DNA as an instruction set is to build proteins. In order to do this, the information needs to be carried out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm where the amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) can be matched up to the genetic code. Each amino acid corresponds to a three-letter sequence of base pairs. A three-letter sequence of genetic-code is called a codon, as pictured in the first image.

The second image shows how the DNA molecule unwinds to create a single chained molecule called mRNA (or messenger RNA), which then travels out of the nucleus, taking the genetic message with it. Each codon (three-letter sequence) on the mRNA is then matched up with a tRNA molecule, building the amino acid chain.

Next image: The Proteins

Previous image: Copying Itself

Back to the Report

Click here for text.
Rosetta Stone: Front Page
Plaintiffs in the Post-Genome Era
Grocery Store Genetics
International Toxicity
Conclusion: Challenges and Opportunities in the Genomics Age
Slide Show
External Links
Discrimination and Ethics
Wired News: Gene Map Highlights Legal Issues 6/29/00
Wired News: Insurers Assuring on Gene Tests 4/20/00
Environmental Health Perspectives Editorial: The Genomic Era: A Crucial Role for the Public Health Sciences 5/00
AUTOMOBILE WORKERS v. JOHNSON CONTROLS, INC., a 1991 Supreme Court case dealing with an employer's decision to bar women (unless infertile) from jobs with lead exposure

Some Interesting Applications of Genetics to Environmental Issues
CNN: DNA technology busts wildlife poachers 5/29/00

Genetics 101

Glossary of Genetic Terms, with audio and video, NHGRI
Glossary and Acronyms, Environmental Genome Project
Genetics: The Basics, DOE
DNA from the Beginning, animated primer on the basics, Cold Spring Harbors Laboratory
Genome Gateway, a comprehensive genomics web resource.

RAND Home Stay Informed Search RAND Publications View Cart